Wnt signaling has essential roles during embryonic development and tissue homoeostasis. Wnt proteins are post-translationally modified and the attachment of a palmitate moiety at two conserved residues is believed to be a prerequisite for the secretion and function of Wnt proteins. Here we demonstrate that a mammalian Wnt protein can be fully functional without palmitoylation.
Extensive analyses of mice carrying null mutations in paired box 7 (Pax7) have confirmed the progressive loss of the satellite cell lineage in skeletal muscle, resulting in severe muscle atrophy and death. A recent study using floxed alleles and tamoxifen-induced inactivation concluded that after 3 wk of age, Pax7 was entirely dispensable for satellite cell function. Here, we demonstrate that Pax7 is an absolute requirement for satellite cell function in adult skeletal muscle.
MicroRNA-133 Controls Brown Adipose Determination in Skeletal Muscle Satellite Cells by Targeting Prdm16
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is an energy-dispensing thermogenic tissue that plays an important role in balancing energy metabolism. Lineage-tracing experiments indicate that brown adipocytes are derived from myogenic progenitors during embryonic development. However, adult skeletal muscle stem cells (satellite cells) have long been considered uniformly determined toward the myogenic lineage.
The influence of the extracellular matrix (ECM) within the stem cell niche remains poorly understood. We found that Syndecan-4 (Sdc4) and Frizzled-7 (Fzd7) form a coreceptor complex in satellite cells and that binding of the ECM glycoprotein Fibronectin (FN) to Sdc4 stimulates the ability of Wnt7a to induce the symmetric expansion of satellite stem cells.
Carm1 Regulates Pax7 Transcriptional Activity through MLL1/2 Recruitment during Asymmetric Satellite Stem Cell Divisions.
In skeletal muscle, asymmetrically dividing satellite stem cells give rise to committed satellite cells that transcribe the myogenic determination factor Myf5, a Pax7-target gene. We identified the arginine methyltransferase Carm1 as a Pax7 interacting protein and found that Carm1 specifically methylates multiple arginines in the N terminus of Pax7.
Snail regulates MyoD binding-site occupancy to direct enhancer switching and differentiation-specific transcription in myogenesis.
In skeletal myogenesis, the transcription factor MyoD activates distinct transcriptional programs in progenitors compared to terminally differentiated cells. Using ChIP-Seq and gene expression analyses, we show that in primary myoblasts, Snail-HDAC1/2 repressive complex binds and excludes MyoD from its targets.
Transcriptional dominance of Pax7 in adult myogenesis is due to high-affinity recognition of homeodomain motifs.
Pax3 and Pax7 regulate stem cell function in skeletal myogenesis. However, molecular insight into their distinct roles has remained elusive. Using gene expression data combined with genome-wide binding-site analysis, we show that both Pax3 and Pax7 bind identical DNA motifs and jointly activate a large panel of genes involved in muscle stem cell function.
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Wnt7a signals through its receptor Fzd7 to activate the planar-cell-polarity pathway and drive the symmetric expansion of satellite stem cells resulting in enhanced repair of skeletal muscle.